, Im Catherine.. This is News Review from BBC Learning English and today joining me is Roy., Hello, Roy., Hello, Catherine and hello everyone.. If you would like to take a quiz on the vocabulary around this story head to our website, bbclearningenglish.com to take a quiz., Now lets hear more about this story. From this BBC News report, The Taliban have retaken the Afghan capital of Kabul twenty years after they were removed., The President has left the country and people are trying to evacuate.. Thank you. Roy. And youve been looking at the headlines around this story.. You have three words and expressions for us today, dont you. What are they? We have brace engulfs and sweep., Brace, engulfs and sweep.. So your first headline please.. Yes, my first headline comes from the UK from the Financial Times and it reads Brace prepare for something difficult.. Now Roy, what can you tell us about brace Right. OK., So this word is spelt B R, A C E. Now, Catherine, when you heard about the UK having a third lockdown, how did you feel Urgh …? Well, you know I thought Here we go again …! Another lockdown., Oh its, going to be difficult. Im going to have to get myself mentally prepared.. So I had a little talk with myself. I bought some extra chocolates and sort of nice jogging trousers and I got ready to stay at home., So I got myself mentally. I made myself feel really strong and decided Im going to power through this lockdown.

, So I had to really strengthen myself, mentally., So … Exactly., So you braced yourself mentally. You prepared yourself for an unpleasant or difficult situation. And notice there as well. I said, Brace yourself.. We commonly use it with words, like brace myself, brace himself brace themselves to talk about preparing for that negative situation., So …, so is it only about mental preparation., Its just about kind of your …, your own self and feelings., No … no.. It can also be used about bracing yourself for a negative … bracing, your body for …, For example. If you go on a plane, they quite commonly read those instructions where they say In the event of an accident. Please you know you put your hands behind your head, I think, and you brace yourself for impact or brace for impact. Yeah … OK., And what about is it only for people? Can you brace things Yeah yeah. Its a little bit different? For example, if you have a weakened wall in your house, maybe youre having some renovations and you notice that a wall is weak or some posts in the garden, maybe want to brace that.. You want to support that., So we use maybe a piece of wood or metal to reinforce the structure, to support it and brace it. OK., And what about braces on peoples? Teeth, Ive heard them using that expression. Yeah slightly different. Its those metal things that we put on our teeth and its used to support and correct their positions.

. Thank you. Lets get a summary of that. Please So talking about difficult situations that we need to brace for. We have a programme about the climate emergency dont we Roy. Where can we find that All you need to do is click the link beneath. And your second headline please. Yes.. My second headline comes from Reuters and it reads: Engulfs affects powerfully overwhelms. Yes., So engulfs is spelt, E N G, U L F S. And it basically means that a place or a person has been almost overwhelmed by a negative situation.. So in the state of the headline, in the case of the headline its saying that chaos has engulfed the airport, which means theres people running around shouting, nobody knows whats happening. No one knows whos in charge and theres a lot of panic. And its happening everywhere. Isnt. It Its just … its not in like little … little parts of the airport.. The idea of engulfs means its absolutely everywhere. All over the airport. And if a person … its quite commonly, we use it in the passive as well. He was engulfed or they were engulfed or the area was engulfed.. And do we say what prepositions are we using? Then, with the passive We commonly use it with in or by., So you can be engulfed by an emotion or you can be engulfed in something., So thats interesting youre now talking about emotions rather than actions.. The airport example was about kind of the physical situation, but you can also be engulfed in or by an emotion, youre saying, Yeah.

. You can be engulfed by fear.. So, for example, if something is too overwhelmingly frightening, you can be just engulfed by fear., So that would mean you know you cant move. You cant talk to anybody, youre completely panicked. You cant think properly … Absolutley. …, because the fear is so strong and its really taking over your entire person. Absolutely., But its not the only case that we use engulf.. There is another meaning of engulf which has this same idea of being surrounded or by … covered by something negative.. For example, a building could be engulfed in flames when it is completely on fire or an area or a country could be engulfed by a snowstorm. Weve. Just been talking about Greece., You know isnt, it large parts of Greece are engulfed in wildfires right, now., Yes, absolutely.! Thank you very much. Lets get a summary Yes. And talking of places being engulfed in flames, we did cover the Notre Dame story when Notre Dame Cathedral. In France was engulfed in flames. Roy, where can we find the video for that? All you need to do is click the link, below. And now lets have a look at our next headline.. Our next headline comes from Associated Press News and it reads: Sweep move powerfully and quickly. Yes., So this word is spelt S, W E E P.. Now, when you clean your house, Catherine now, I think this word is quite commonly used when talking about cleaning.

How do you clean your house? Well, what I usually do is use a vacuum cleaner, but for the purposes of this programme, Im going to tell you that I get a very … a small hand brush and I get down onto the floor and I move that brush slowly and very carefully around The floor and I gather every tiny, little piece of dust and dirt from the floor., So I sweep my floor with a brush. Perfect. Now, obviously, in the headline were not talking about cleaning an airport or cleaning an area, but in this sense it is a similar Idea with that big movement. – And we usually talk about sweep when a group of people are moving into an area covering everything and … Yeah its covering … theyre, not missing anything. Are they No. Theyre, getting absolutely everything and nothing …, nothing escapes a sweep. Does it Absolutely. And also, for example, its not just about a group of people? Maybe a government sweeps into power, which is a similar idea with talking about the Taliban here they are sweeping into power. And that kind of means with you know, …. Nothing can stop them isnt, it Yeah. Its the idea that its complete you know this takeover of power., Its a large, quick and powerful movement.. Another way that we can use sweep is actually for a trend or something like this., So, for example, a new fashion style that everybody starts doing.

We can actually say it sweeps the nation. Strong, collocation there isnt it That phrase to sweep the nation …. We use that a lot dont we in British English, We do …, we do. Sweep … to say that everybodys doing it or its very, very popular.. Thank you very much. And lets see a summary Now Roy. Can you recap todays vocabulary Of course.. We had brace prepare for something difficult. Engulfs affects powerfully overwhelms. And we had sweep move powerfully and quickly.. Thank you. Roy. Now, dont forget that you can test yourself on the vocabulary for todays show on our website bbclearningenglish.com.. We are also all over social media.. Thank you for joining us.

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